An evaluation of the tradition female circumcision

Subnational prevalence estimates vary considerably within most eastern and southern African countries. In the countries for which DHS data are available, the median age at excision ranges from less than two months in Eritrea to about six years in Mali and almost 10 years in Egypt.

A woman may suffer from abscesses and pain from damaged nerve endings long after the initial wound has healed. Of the five countries for which An evaluation of the tradition female circumcision data are available on women's opinions toward excision, the Central African Republic is the only one in which the majority favor d iscontinuation.

Over million women and girls are thought to be living with FGM in those 30 countries. More important, her case was instrumental in redefining the practice as gender-based violence that could be grounds for the granting of political a sylum. Painful birth Experience Circumcised women find it difficult to have natural birth and many complications during birth procedures are common among these category of women.

Human Sciences Research Council; XK participated in the design of the study and the training of the traditional surgeons and nurses. Manhood at a price: The practice was rarely spoken of in Africa and little known in the West until the second half of this century.

Female genital mutilation

Similarly, one-third of the traditional nurses did not wear gloves for postoperative wound care, although the practice was recommended in their training. The session culminated in a coming-of-age celebration planned by the community, excluding circumcision but including gifts and special T-shirts for the initiates, skits, and "books of wisdom" prepared by the parents of each g irl.

For assessing prevalence and age, we included cross-sectional, cohort and register studies; for assessing complications, we also included intervention studies.

To advise is good, but not to o rder. In addition, other African women's networks and organizations that had focused primarily on such issues as reproductive health, women's rights and legal justice became involved in working against the practice. Studies reporting on male circumcision provided through medical facilities were excluded, as were studies focusing on newborn and infant circumcision.

When some midwives were arrested for performing circumcision, anticolonial protests broke out. Dugger, "African Ritual Pain: As Toubia comments, "this one violation of women's rights cannot [be abolished] without placing it firmly within the context of efforts to address the social and economic injustice women face the world over.

Such procedures generally take place outside of formal medical settings and are performed by providers who may have special training but who are normally not health professionals. The project trained health workers to teach individuals about the harmful effects of female circumcision and to work through religious organizations, women's organizations and social clubs to mobilize communities against the p ractice.

Estimates for other countries are generally based on local surveys or anecdotal information. Circumcision in various Nigerian and Kenyan hospitals.

The reviewers then extracted the data relating to prevalence, age and complications of traditional male circumcision. The use of the appropriate surgical instruments and wound care needs to be emphasized by traditional leaders.

Complications arise during the procedure because the practitioners are unskillful. Despite the overall lack of change in the percentages of girls who undergo circumcision, changes in attitudes and practices seem to be occurring in some countries.

Her viewpoint is not i mportant. The study found that from initiates physically examined at the 14th day after circumcision by a trained clinical nurse the following major adverse events following surgery were found: Men who report having been circumcised may be referring to the cultural initiation rites, with or without the surgical removal of the foreskin.

The females child in these cultures are seen as unclean until they are being circumcised. Some women are circumcised in their old age especially when they want to marry into another clan or when after the birth of their first child. Amputations or mutilations occurred in 0. Some who are unable to penetrate their wives manage to get them pregnant in spite of the infibulation, and the woman's vaginal passage is then cut open to allow birth to take place.

The Tradition of Female Circumcision

Among the study participants, infection was equally common among those circumcised traditionally and medically data for participants from self-report. Given their age and their lack of education and resources, they are dependent on their parents, and later on their husband, for the basic necessities of life.

In some communities, the prospective husband's family pays a brideprice to the family of the bride, giving his family the right to her labor and her children; she herself has no right to or control over either.Using a pre-post intervention evaluation design, this study evaluated initiates who had undergone a traditional male circumcision intervention with trained traditional surgeons and traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Evaluation and Treatment of Female Genital Mutilation Douglas W. Laube, M.D.,, Professor and Chair, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin at Madison Medical School One consequence of increased emigration from Africa and the Middle East to the developed world is an increase in patients with female circumcision, or female.

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

Female Genital Cutting

The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common. Female genital cutting (FGC) or female circumcision refers to traditional practices that intentionally alter or injure female genital organs for non-medical reasons (WHO, ).

Another term for this prac­tice is female genital mutilation, which emphasizes the permanent physical damage done to the female genita­lia (Yoder, Camara, and. Conclusion Published studies on traditional male circumcision in eastern and southern Africa are limited; thus, it is not possible to accurately assess the prevalence of complications following the procedure or the impact.

Female Circumcision is widely known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Cutting. This tradition was practiced in some ethnic groups and religion, has been wiped off by some laws and still in practice in some countries.

An evaluation of the tradition female circumcision
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